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July 25, 2017

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Is social media to blame for the worsening mental health of teenage girls?

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Pam Ramsden, University of Bradford

New research by the Department of Education has found that the mental well-being of teenage girls in the UK is worsening. The survey, which took the views of 30,000 14-year-old pupils in 2005 and 2014, found that 37% of girls suffer from psychological distress, up from 34% in 2005. (This compares with 15% for boys in 2014, down from 17% a decade earlier.) The report’s authors noted that one of the things that has changed between 2005 and 2014 is the “advent of the social media age”.

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The adolescent years are a time of rapid physical, cognitive and emotional development. Teenagers interact with people in order to learn how to become competent adults. In the past they would engage with parents, teachers and other adults in their community as well as extended family members and friends. Now we can also add social media to that list of social and emotional development. But why should the advent of social media be a problem?

Research indicates that girls may be at higher risk than boys from the negative aspects of social media. Young girls, with their limited capacity for self-regulation and susceptibility to peer pressure, are at risk of having bad experiences online that could negatively affect their development into healthy adults, and could lead to depression and anxiety disorders.

During adolescence, people develop traits such as confidence and self-control. Because teenage brains have not fully developed, and won’t fully develop until they reach young adulthood, they lack the cognitive ability of awareness and privacy and can post inappropriate messages, pictures and videos without understanding the long-term ramifications. What they are posting may not stay in their small circle of friends and can be circulated far and wide with devastating consequences.

Unlike their male peers, girls are more likely to over share personal information or post false information about themselves or others, increasing the possibility of experiencing a bad reaction from peers such as bullying or negative comments.

False ideals

Social media also gives the “X Factor” generation aspirations of celebrity status and impossible expectations. Social media sites are filled with photographs of stunning models for teenage girls to aspire to. Body image for the young adolescent girl is shaped by emotions (need to be liked), perceptions (adequate breast size) and is further influenced by cultural messages and societal standards. Social media allows girls to make comparisons among friends as well as celebrities and then provides them with “solutions” such as extreme dieting tips and workouts to reach their goals.



Trying to attain the ‘perfect’ body can lead to body dysmorphic disorder.
Syda Productions/Shutterstock

Research has indicated that adolescent girls are at risk of developing eating disorders as well as body dysmorphic disorder (the need to surgically correct a perceived imperfection, such as small breasts). Concerns about body image can negatively impact their quality of life preventing them from having healthy relationships and taking up time that could be better spent developing other aspects of their personalities.

Social media can also have a negative impact on puberty encouraging young girls to join the “adult” world and become sexually active before they are mature enough to cope with all of the ramifications that this can have on their lives. Sexting has become a common occurrence with 20% of adolescents sending or posting nude or seminude photographs or videos of themselves to other adolescents. People who have been betrayed face the humiliation of having their picture shared far and wide by someone they trusted with intimate information. The extreme emotional distress these girls have felt has been widely documented as have the accompanying mental health conditions that result.

Adolescence is also a time when people begin to develop advanced reasoning skills and further expand their cognitive development. This is a time when they begin to think about how they are perceived by others. Adolescent girls have a tendency to obsess over the mundane, going over and over actions and thoughts because they are attempting to assimilate and process the information. This is healthy, but research is finding that when it is combined with social media it can intensify into an unhealthy activity and become a precursor to depression and depressive symptoms.

Social media can be a friend or foe and instead of constantly focusing on the negative aspects we should instead use it as a tool to help adolescent girls to understand that the images that are constantly being projected on social media do not reflect the average person and that there is a wide diversity in physical appearance and rates of development. We should encourage girls to think critically about social media.

The ConversationAdolescent girls spend a great deal of their time online, simply attempting to ban or control this behaviour will only push them into secretive online activities. Instead parents should become more involved in helping their teenagers negotiate social media obstacles and promote a healthy self-confidence.

Pam Ramsden, Lecturer in Psychology, University of Bradford

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

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No, the internet is not actually stealing kids’ innocence

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  • yeah society, media etc portrays such a fake version of people and the world. it’s glamourised and nothing like real life so we have to focus more on raising great kids who have great knowledge of their self worth. Build up their self esteem from being a decent person not because they look like a model or something equally shallow

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  • Why do teenagers at school need mobile phones – including social media?
    I know one who has a “locked” phone with a limited list of numbers which can be called, mainly for emergencies. They do not have social media on their phone or home computers. Once they are 18 and have the ability to pay for it themselves hopefully they are mature enough to understand the consequences and how to block “undesirable” people etc. I have names blocked on facebook on my computer etc.

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  • The influence social media has nowadays is huge. This can be positive or negative. Scary really.

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  • Yes, Social Media has a big impact on kids and their self-esteem and confidence. Finding a happy and healthy balance is a struggle, especially due to peer pressure, but guidance and support from parents should enable your children not to be overwhelmed by this ever increasing social activity.

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  • It’s scary how controlling/addictive social media is on tweenages/teenages! I’m dreading it, my kids are only young but it’s beginning now with my eldest & I believe you have to be strict with the use of technology devices.

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  • I know a young mum who has 3 children. And both of her girls have tured in scarey nasty people. They couldnt be seperated for the internet. One ran away from home at age 12 she just left the house and didnt come back. After the 2nd day everyone was thinking the worst. One the 4th day she came home. Escorted by police, who said your daughter is nothing but trouble. She even made up stories saying her father had hit her. They tried all they knew, when the internet was cut off by her parents she ran away again. And only came home when it was re connected. Her younger sister is worse.. So this example that i have witnessed shows me how dominated they are about being in contact with their friends.

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  • Parents have an important role in building a healthy self image, not build on social media or the opinion of others. But build on love and respect of our unique self. Some social media is OK, but it should have a healthy balance. Teaching them that should start at a very early age and with yourself.


    • I agree – children need to be taught about their own unique look, ability and talents.

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  • social media, tv, magazines – they all play a huge part in stereotyping women and how we are supposed to look – I have bad hair, bad skin, some weight around my belly – when my girls ask me if I am fat I choose to say “no I am comfortable in my own skin, I am happy being me” to help them realise it doesn’t matter what you look like to others but how you look to yourself – and i think as women we need to make a stop to comparing ourselves to others that look “perfect” – anything in a magazine is not perfect – it is photoshopped and styled and make up and hair professionals – if we could afford them all for each day of our lives to look like that then great but i cannot so I embrace my flaws, my grey hairs, my warts and all and rock it being me so my girls can feel confident being themselves not matter what!

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  • Social media does affect the young to fit in and follow their role models.

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  • Parents have a role in helping their children understand social media and images and the media world versus ‘real’ world and the media image and ‘real’ image. Social media and technology are a part of everyday life and children need to be educated in the use of it and to also develop their minds in other areas that are not technology based. It is all about balance in technology time/no technology time.

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  • I certainly think its not helping.

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  • Very important to talk about this subject. I see so many young girls posting pictures of themselves regularly. It looks like an obsession. What I find quite scary is then seeing 13-14 years old girls posting provoking pictures of themselves. At that age. And a lot of them even post them public. I’m astonished. And I can’t believe their parents let met do that.

    Reply

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