May 18, 2021


If you could be one age for the rest of your life, what would it be?

Would you choose to be nine years old, absolved of life’s most tedious responsibilities, and instead able to spend your days playing with friends and practicing your times tables?

Or would you choose your early 20s, when time feels endless and the world is your oyster – with friends, travel, pubs and clubs beckoning?

Western culture idealises youth, so it may come as a surprise to learn that in a recent poll asking this question, the most popular answer wasn’t 9 or 23, but 36.

Yet as a developmental psychologist, I thought that response made a lot of sense.

For the last four years, I’ve been studying people’s experiences of their 30s and early 40s, and my research has led me to believe that this stage of life – while full of challenges – is much more rewarding than most might think.

The career and care crunch

When I was a researcher in my late 30s, I wanted to read more about the age period I was in. That was when I realised that no one was doing research on people in their 30s and early 40s, which puzzled me. So much often happens during this time: Buying homes, getting married or getting divorced; building careers, changing careers, having children or choosing not to have children.

To study something, it helps to name it. So my colleagues and I named the period from ages 30 to 45 “established adulthood,” and then set out to try to understand it better. While we are still collecting data, we have currently interviewed over 100 people in this age cohort, and have collected survey data from more than 600 additional people.

We went into this large-scale project expecting to find that established adults were happy but struggling. We thought there would be rewards during this period of life – perhaps being settled in career, family and friendships, or peaking physically and cognitively – but also some significant challenges.

Dual Demands

The main challenge we anticipated was what we called “the career and care crunch.”

This refers to the collision of workplace demands and demands of caring for others that takes place in your 30s and early 40s. Trying to climb a ladder in a chosen career while also being increasingly expected to care for kids, tend to the needs of partners and perhaps care for aging parents can create a lot of stress and work.

face happy

Stretched BUT Satisfied

Yet when we started to look at our data, what we found surprised us.

Yes, people were feeling overwhelmed and talked about having too much to do in too little time. But they also talked about feeling profoundly satisfied. All of these things that were bringing them stress were also bringing them joy.

For example, Yuying, 44, said: “even though there are complicated points of this time period, I feel very solidly happy in this space right now.”

Nina, 39, simply described herself as being ‘wildly happy.’ (The names used in this piece are pseudonyms, as required by research protocol.)

When we took an even closer look at our data, it started to become clear why people might wish to remain age 36 over any other age. People talked about being in the prime of their lives and feeling at their peak. After years of working to develop careers and relationships, people reported feeling as though they had finally arrived.

Mark, 36, shared that, at least for him, “things feel more in place.” “I’ve put together a machine that’s finally got all the parts it needs,” he said.

A sigh of relief after the tumultuous 20s

As well as feeling as though they had accumulated the careers, relationships and general life skills they had been working toward since their 20s, people also said they had greater self-confidence and understood themselves better.

Jodie, 36, appreciated the wisdom she had gained as she reflected on life beyond her 20s:

“Now you’ve got a solid decade of life experience. And what you discover about yourself in your 20s isn’t necessarily that what you wanted was wrong. It’s just you have the opportunity to figure out what you don’t want and what’s not going to work for you. … So you go into your 30s, and you don’t waste a bunch of time going on half dozen dates with somebody that’s probably not really going to work out, because you’ve dated before and you have that confidence and that self-assuredness to be like, ‘hey, thanks but no thanks.’ Your friend circle becomes a lot closer because you weed out the people that you just don’t need in your life that bring drama.”

Most established adults we interviewed seemed to recognize that they were happier in their 30s than they were in their 20s, and this impacted how they thought about some of the signs of physical aging that they were starting to encounter. For example, Lisa, 37, said, “If I could go back physically but I had to also go back emotionally and mentally … no way. I would take flabby skin lines every day.”

Not ideal for everyone

Our research should be viewed with some caveats.

The interviews were primarily conducted with middle-class North Americans, and many of the participants are white. For those who are working class, or for those who have had to reckon with decades of systemic racism, established adulthood may not be so rosy.

It is also worth noting that the career and care crunch has been exacerbated, especially for women, by the COVID-19 pandemic. For this reason, the pandemic may be leading to a decrease in life satisfaction, especially for established adults who are parents trying to navigate full-time careers and full-time child care.

[You’re smart and curious about the world. So are The Conversation’s authors and editors. You can get our highlights each weekend.]

Sweet Spot

At the same time, that people think of their 30s – and not their 20s or their teens – as the sweet spot in their lives to which they’d like to return suggests that this is a period of life that we should pay more attention to.

And this is slowly happening. Along with my own work is an excellent book recently written by Kayleen Shaefer, “But You’re Still So Young,” that explores people navigating their 30s. In her book, she tells stories of changing career paths, navigating relationships and dealing with fertility.

My colleagues and I hope that our work and Shaefer’s book are just the beginning. Having a better understanding of the challenges and rewards of established adulthood will give society more tools to support people during that period, ensuring that this golden age provides not only memories that we will fondly look back upon, but also a solid foundation for the rest of our lives. The Conversation

‘Established adulthood’ is an emerging area of study.

Clare Mehta
, Associate Professor of Psychology, Emmanuel College

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

If you could stay at any age forever, what would it be? And Why? Tell us in the comments below.

  • I’d kinda like my 25 year old body back, I’d be really happy about that. But yeah, emotionally and mentally, I was much happier from my mid 30s.


  • These days a lot of people dont get job security until they get to around 30. You need 2 degrees to get a foot in the door and there is so much casual and contract work. Getting to that point where you actually know you have a steady income to buy a house or car is a big deal!


  • I am more content in my 30s.


  • Difficult to say … I loved my early 20’s – carefree and full of life, my 30’s saw me in an established and good career, my 40’s saw me financially secure … all good, positive things to make me content. I am now working for myself, mortgage free and living away from the rat race – yes, I’m probably at my happiest now!


  • I’m 36 now but I feel like I was most happiest during my early 20s.
    Now I have kids and a family, I feel fulfilled by still question where my life is going and most nights have panic attacks when the kids are asleep about whether or not to quit my job and do something I love or stay and get paid more money but be miserable.
    I want the best for my kids so am leaning more towards staying in my job but I’m just so unhappy doing what I do and working where I am.


  • For me it is 20.I like hanging out my friends and go to shopping.


  • I’m 33 this year and honestly I’m not sure I’ve had my happiest time yet. Hopefully it will be soon.


  • 16 was pretty good for me and late 20s to early 30s have been pretty good too.


  • Im 32 and I still think my early 20’s were the best. Let’s see how I feel in 4 years time haha


  • Im in my 30s now. Even though I have a smaller group of friends, they are friends I enjoy going out with and catch up with more regularly


  • I’m only 28 but I so need to be out of the rut we are in, but I’m also terrified of getting older haha


  • Twenties are great for the care free, uni life, and I miss that, but my 30s have given me motherhood, which although is hard at times, it’s a great time to be in!


  • To be honest my happiest times started when I was 13 because that’s when I met my late husband. Since he passed away I haven’t found anything to be really happy about. When I’m feeling really down I just think of him and look at our photos of when we were young. I would have loved to stay 20 because that’s when we got married.


  • I agree- I’m 34 this year, my kids are old enough to both be in school and do some things themselves and we’ve got our own home and just enough money to do the occasional reno or holiday.


  • Whilst I have been through a difficult time, I am actually enjoying my 40s.


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