Children who have in place the essential neurological foundations for optimal development do not display Just Noticeable Differences (JNDs). JNDs are the ‘little developmental hiccups’ that usually do not warrant medical intervention or a complete developmental assessment, but may cause behaviour or learning challenges once a child heads off to school.

Everyone expects their children to learn once they get to school – and may blame the teachers if they do not.

Yet many children enter school without the skills required for learning and so learning is a real struggle. It is therefore imperative that any JNDs be identified before school age and appropriate preventative care be implemented.

JNDs may not be cause for medical concern but they can make the difference between just coping or really enjoying academic success. So, rather than wait and hope a child will grow out of it, it’s important to recognise they exist, that they have an impact on later learning and that there is lots that can be done to correct them before a child reaches school age.

It is more than likely that children with JNDs are extremely intelligent… it’s just that these developmental hiccups hold them back.

What causes JNDs?

JNDs can arise from numerous causes and certain experiences will increase a child’s risk of JNDs. For example, a premature birth, or a long, difficult birth that causes the baby some form of distress; exposure to extremely high levels of stress; lack of early sensory-motor opportunities; chronic illnesses, amongst other things, may predispose a child to JNDs.

Most of these are out of parents’ control and even though most parents work hard to do the very best for their baby and child the JNDs still arise. Sometimes there is no known explanation for the occurrence of JNDs.

What to look for

In the past it was rare for anyone to pay attention to JNDs before a child reached school and began to struggle, but today we know more, we know what to look for and we know what to do.

JNDs in babies

  • Fidgety or general movements (between weeks six and twelve) are weaker or stronger than expected. This may reflect muscle tone that is lower or higher than expected.1.
  • Head lifting and pushing up on arms is delayed.
  • Does not like tummy time. Free tummy time video and tips here.
  • Bottom shuffles, bear walks, rolls everywhere, does not crawl or creep, or creeps in a pattern other than the cross-pattern creeping on hands and knees. More here.
  • Always unhappy.
  • Has difficulty feeding.
  • Has recurring ear infections.
  • Not babbling.

JNDs in 12 months to 2½ years

  • Cries frequently, unsettled.
  • Slow to gain good balance walking and not running by 18 months.
  • Does not have a strong grasp – can’t hold body weight by hands on the trapeze or when tick-tocking holding onto parent.
  • Dislikes spinning.
  • Hyperactive.
  • Sensory timidity – dislikes massage, noise, bright lights, lumpy foods etc.
  • Poor balance, muscle tone and coordination.
  • Can’t jump with both feet off the ground by 2 ¼ .
  • Behaviour abnormal – tantrums at this age are normal, but not all the time!

JNDs in 2½  to 3½  years

  • Unable to ride a trike by three years of age.
  • Unable to cross over the midline in exercises.
  • Standing on one foot is impossible.
  • Slow speech – hard to understand.
  • Has difficulty following instructions.
  • Poor muscle tone and coordination.
  • Difficulty moving own limbs with rhythm.
  • Obviously slower than their peers.
  • Still clinging to parent for safety.

JNDs in 3½ years – 4½ years

  • Motor skills delay – not cross patterned in movement, can’t skip along, kick a stationary ball.
  • Drawing immature – not yet representational.
  • No preferred hand/side.
  • Cannot do cross pattern progression across the overhead.
  • Unable to cross midline physically or visually.
  • Poor finger awareness – by this age a child should know pointer, the thumb and usually ‘pinky’!

JNDs in 4½ years -5½ years

  • Developmental delay in movement skills and concentration.
  • Hyperactivity – unsettled behaviour.
  • Changes hands at the midline.
  • Does not know left or right side.
  • Cannot gallop or skip.
  • Does not draw a person with head, body, limbs and facial features.
  • Visual tracking and other visual problems.
  • Hearing/speech difficulties.

If you have concerns about any of the above, please ask your GymbaROO or KindyROO teacher and/or your local health professional for advice. Your concerns should be taken seriously. If you are ‘brushed off’ and told you are being over-concerned, consider seeking a second opinion.

You are a child’s most important advocate as you spend more time with your child than anyone else. If you have a concern it is legitimate and important.

There are a raft of activity ideas that you can put in place at home to assist your baby and child’s development so that JNDs are overcome. The sooner attention is drawn to your concerns, the earlier something can be done about it. This is important as the brains of very young children respond very quickly to the intervention. The older a child gets, the longer it takes for change to occur.

So don’t worry if your child is displaying some of the above JNDs, there are solutions to all of them.

Have you experienced JNDs in your child? Please share your experiences in the comments below.

By Dr Jane Williams (PhD, BMgt, RN(Paeds))

GymbaROO and KIndyROO

Dr Jane Williams (PhD, BMgt, RN(Paeds)) is the Research and Education General Manager for GymbaROO and KindyROO. Dr Williams is one of Australia’s leading experts on baby and child development. More on Dr Williams here: http://activebabiessmartkids.com.au/about/meet-our-experts/

Image courtesy of Shutterstock.com

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  • Thanks for this informative article.


  • Interesting. This could apply to any number of things. I could relate to this article, but then say that my son was diagnosed with Aspergers, aged 10. He had many JNDs that I was not concerned about until they presented problems for him at school. As he grew through school, he was bullied and his differences were more noticeable to more people. I love that my son is unique and different, and I always prefaced that he had differences, but not in a bad way. He’s growing into a lovely young man who is unique and much loved by many for his quirks.


  • I think this article is important to flag that if parents have any concerns with their child’s development to take them to an health professional. Speech pathologists, physiotherapists and occupational therapists are the specialists in your child’s development. They have specifically studied and trained in these specialist areas for 4 years at university. You can access them for free through the government community health centres.


  • Hope your tips will help mothers on this site – it never happened in the old days and kids just had to suffer through it. A lot failed.


  • What an interesting read. You never know these things can happen till it does.


  • My friend recently found out that her two year old was unable to hear sometime after her two day old hearing test. She always the child was shy. No one had picked it up. You can never be too sure.


  • My eldest was well ahead and reading at a grade 3 level when she had just started school.
    My middle child was the complete opposite and had to be held back a year, had to have one on one teaching, speech therapy, was tested for everything….colour blindness, hearing, general eye site, etc.
    My third child was middle of the road.

    Each child was different but they have all gone on to make me very proud with what they have achieved.


  • Thank you for sharing this intriguing and informative article.


  • Hmm interesting read… these kind of sound more or less like milestones though.


  • Gee, thanks for this advertisement … I mean article !!??

    • Haha yes it wasn’t until the end that this became clear!


  • Thanks for this listing – have passed it on to my daughters.


  • Thank you for this. We welcomed Daughter 2 in december and things has changed in 7 years!!!


  • I have not heard of this before. Thank you for the information


  • If I was worried, Id be seeking help from a specialist medical professional – not the local kindyROO/gymbaROO


  • \’There are a raft of activity ideas that you can put in place at home to assist your baby and child’s development so that JNDs are overcome. \’

    Like what?!


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